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Gentlemen`s Agreement 1907

The increase in Japanese immigration, which was to replace some marginalized Chinese agricultural workers, has met with concerted opposition in California. To appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated the diplomatic agreement in which the Japanese government took on the responsibility of drastically limiting Japanese immigration, especially that of workers, so that Japanese children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. However, family migration could continue, as Japanese men, with sufficient savings, could bring wives through arranged marriages (“pictured wives”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japanese-American population was more gender-friendly than other Asian-American communities, and continued to grow through natural increases, which led to increased pressure to end immigration and further reduce residents` rights. The gentlemen`s agreement of 1907 () was an informal agreement between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan紳協 which did not allow Japanese immigration and Japan to no longer emigrate to the United States. The aim was to ease tensions between the two Pacific states. The agreement was never ratified by the U.S. Congress and was replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924. Concessions were agreed in a note that, a year later, consisted of six points. The agreement was followed by the admission of Japanese students to public schools.

The adoption of the 1907 agreement spurred the arrival of “image marriages,” women who were closed remotely by photos. [11] The creation of distant marital ties allowed women who wanted to emigrate to the United States to obtain a passport, and Japanese workers in America were able to earn a partner of their own nationality. [11] As a result of this provision, which helped to reduce the gender gap in the Community, from a ratio of 7 men per woman in 1910 to less than 2 to 1 in 1920, japan`s population continued to grow despite the immigration restrictions imposed by the agreement. The gentlemen`s agreement was never enshrined in a law passed by the U.S. Congress, but it was an informal agreement between the United States and Japan, which was implemented by unilateral action by President Roosevelt. It was repealed by the Immigration Act of 1924, which prohibits all Asians from immigrating to the United States. [12] On April 18, 1906, the San Francisco Board of Education separated all Japanese students from the Oriental Public School for Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans. The Japanese were outraged at what they saw as a violation of the 1894 treaty, which had guaranteed them the right to immigration. When the problem worsened in the United States and Japan, they intervened to maintain diplomatic peace.

The Gentleman`s Agreement of 1907 Collection in DIVA collects primary source documents, including telegrams, letters and confidential memos from 1906 to 1908, detailing the discussions of Theodoore Roosevelt, Elihu Root, Kazuo Matsubara and others. Newspaper clippings and magazine articles in the United States and Japan show the real impact of their decisions. (more) Tensions in San Francisco had increased, and since Japan`s decisive victory, Japan sanitized against Russia in 1905, demanding equal treatment from Japan. The result was a series of six notes communicated between Japan and the United States from late 1907 to early 1908.